Culture and History

Topic: The Deceitful Theoretical Indenture! Slavery and its twin brother, Indenture in practice, showed remarkable similarities! Guy #18

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We, the Inward Jew Nation in Christ (Guyana, South America) believe in a single (Monos) God, the Father of all and Most High God, who is a divine Spirit. [John 4:23-24] Yahweh changes not…. [Malachi 3:6] Again, “God is not a man, that He should lie; neither the son of man that He should repent.” [Numbers 23:18-19]


Redeeming Luv; to the Inward Jew Nation in Christ, all seekers of truth and of the Kingdom; worldwide.

Beloved, this is Thursday, June 09, 2016!

Today, Redeeming Luv brings you the blue print for Slavery and Indenture, an authentic publication namely, “Indian Labour in British Guyana,” with British Flag with the label British Empire: British Guiana next to it.

Aim: (1) To encourage all Guyanese; including the misinformed and prejudiced to read more of our history, hold group discussions about it in a friendly environment to know the truth about our ethnic groups’ history and to better understand the similarities of slavery and indenture in practice, (2) To stimulate the thinking of readers, motivate young writers to think out of the box, and rewrite accurately our history on Slavery, and Indenture in Practice, etc., and, (3) To stamp out ethnic divisions: and instead, promote ethnic harmony for a New and Liberated Guyanese Society of One people, One nation, One destiny, for “a better life.”


Sub-Topic: East Indian Indentured labourers’ migration to British Guiana: their actual working and living conditions similar to Slavery.

Stand Corrected:  Mental Cleansing #1― Know that East Indian indentured labourers’ “working and living conditions were destructive of caste and culture, and often as harsh as those of the slaves they replaced!”

The Nature 'Slavery' and 'Indenture' was one and same!

According to a publication from an authentic source, ‘British Empire: British Guiana,” on “Indian Labour in British Guiana,” In the last and final year of emancipation in British West Indies (August 1, 1838) the British planters brought to British Guiana a batch of East Indian indentured labourers, (from their motherland) “whose working and living conditions were destructive of caste and culture, and often as harsh as those of the slaves they replaced.” It was on May 5, 1838, when a small batch of immigrants, i.e. 396, from Calcutta, landed in British Guiana and that event commenced the Indentured System which was to continue for 75 years with “essential features reminiscent of slavery.” Note worthily, importation of labour was a search by Guianese planters for a competitive labour force that was “docile, reliable, and friendly to discipline under harsh, tropical conditions, and still maintain control similar to that under slavery.” Amazingly, “… within a decade the fortunes of the sugar industry changed from predicted ruin to prosperity due to Indian immigration.” (

The Guianese Planters’ view of the liberty of African Guianese labourers

Accustomed to a mentality of forced labour, the planters viewed the liberty of African Guianese labourers with fear. Competing among themselves for labour they paid higher wages for it. And when the labour force became unpredictable the planters created policies to curtail the shift of labour elsewhere and to ground the work force on the plantation “through laws and regulation” which made it difficult for them to get land.  Further the planters used random measures to cut their wage bill to become less dependent on wage labour, but all efforts failed and they turned to immigration to dominate labour again.

How India became the main basin of manpower

To strengthen their supply to the West Indies Islands, southern United States, Europe, West Africa, the Portuguese Atlantic Islands, India and China, the planters attempted many schemes with success, but India, with a crumbling economy boosted by the British new land tenure system, a high rate of unemployment and a steady increasing population in overcrowded areas, became the main basin of manpower. Thus in spite of their conservative and non-migratory nature, some among the rustic Indian population in the recruiting districts were ready to go for “the promises of better times.”

Recruitment; Deception in the System

The smaller batches of Indian immigrants were recruited from the Tamil and Telugu Southern districts, while the majority was recruited from North India, but on fake promises, intimidation, force and deception, and in difficult times by kidnapping and forced detention; by trained recruiters mainly assisted by paid local agents, the Arkatis and the Maistris in the North and South respectively, until the system stopped in 1917.

As early as 1860, in north India they recruited Indians from Calcutta area and the Chota Nagpur plateau: from the latter were drawn active, robust non-Hindu workers, the Dhangars, the semi-aboriginese, until their numbers declined due to high deaths at sea, and their high demand in the tea plantations. Next the British operations advanced further to the North-Western Provinces and Modern Uttar Pradesh and Bahir and that vast region became the main colonial labour suppliers. According to statistics, in the heavily congested districts of Western Birar and Eastern Uttar the population density in 1881 varied from 450.1 in Shahjabad to 894.4 in Benares City.

Some factors that hindered large scale Indian emigration

Some factors that hindered large scale Indian emigration were: “the Hindu nature to conserve and their prejudices (particularly the upper castes), caste defilement by crossing the convict settlement in the Indian ocean, and becoming an outcaste; the fear of being forced to eat beef or pork and of being converted to Christianity; the fear, widely circulated in Bihar of mimiai ka tel or the extraction of oil from the immigrant’s head suspended downwards; the fear of confiscation of the holy thread of the Brahmins (priests) and the beads of the Hindus; the reluctance of desiring emigrants to permit their spouses to be medically examined at the medical center for venereal diseases, and dissatisfaction towards their long detention before boarding the ship; their suspicion of the entire emigration scheme due to the scarcity of news from the colonies that received the emigrants, who did not return in great numbers, and their strong ties to ancestral land.” (

 Note: In spite of the above mentioned rigid obstacles, large batches embarked on the vessels, “mainly due to the impact of British rule in India which resulted in a steady deterioration of the social and economic conditions of the people in the principal recruiting areas.”

Some other important factors

 The thousands who lost their original livelihood opted for agriculture, a seasonal employment provider, subject to fluctuation due to floods and droughts. The effects of pressure on agriculture “led to land fragmentation and uneconomic holdings.” Further, both “unemployment and underemployment,” and the reducing capacity of the land to support the rural population, the failure of an extra job to increase their income during the ‘off-season’ caused them to be helpless and penniless. Thus with such psychological play at its best, the Indian worker, especially the woman, became vulnerable. Interestingly, when the Indian worker fell prey to recruiters’ promises and immediate monetary help, they took him to “the emigration depot where he was housed, clothed and fed.

The best recruiting agent in India during the 1860s and 70s

However, the best recruiting agent in India during the 1860s and 70s was made up of these factors: the state of poverty and indebtedness of the people, and the frequent famine or scarcity. The famines broke the villagers’ self-confidence and they slump into a disorganized state. Landless and unemployed labourers were made destitute. Peasants were pressured to get rid of their cattle, sell or mortage their lands; “caste prejudices or religious sanctions were ignored or forgotten as villagers flocked to the emigration depots to avoid starvation.”

Other explanations for the enlistment of Indian labour

In addition to the economic pressure created through British psychology at work “in the principal recruiting areas,” other possible explanations for the enlistment of Indian labour for sugar colonies were: “the martial and adventurous race of Bhojpuri-speaking districts of Shahabad in Bihar were and always prepared to carve their fortunes abroad, they were accustomed to travel considerable distances to seek employment in industrial centres. Many had migrated to Mauritius and returned with small fortunes. There were others who emigrated on account of domestic quarrels or were fleeing from justice or from their creditors.” Many perhaps embarked because they had lost caste or found the caste system unbearable. (

Stand corrected: Mental Cleansing #2 ― “Brahmins among the high castes did comprise a sizeable proportion!”

Interestingly, a fallacy prevalent in Guyana today is that Indian immigrants were drawn exclusively from the lowest and least desirable classes of Indian society. “It is argued that caste prejudices were so strong among Brahmins and others that they would not risk losing caste by crossing the sea. Hence Brahmins in the society were often described as ‘pseudo-Brahmins’ or ‘ship Brahmins’, the implication being that they assumed such high caste status during the voyage. While it is true that some emigrants changed their identity on embarkation or on arrival, the available evidence refutes this assertion. The reports of the Protector of Emigrants and other Indian officials showed that emigrants comprised a variety of caste groups at different levels of the Indian caste hierarchy and that the high castes comprised a sizeable proportion.” (

The process at embarkation, the voyage

The successful indentured labourers were taken to the depot for immediate process of ‘seasoning’ for the long, boring voyage to the West Indies. At embarkation certain precautions were taken to ensure health and safety en route. Social intercourse between crew and emigrant women and the carrying of firearms or inflammable material were strictly prohibited. On the vessel besides the officers and crew, were compounders dispensed medicine and often acted as interpreters; the topazes or sweepers ensured that the deck and water closets were kept clean.

 In the the late 1850s, mortality on Calcutta ships was heavy, sometimes excessive due to “cursory depot medical examination, polluted drinking water, unhygienic habits of emigrants, particularly the Dhangars, and indiscriminate recruitment of surgeons, many of whom displayed gross professional incompetence. But with the introduction of new innovations mortality was progressively reduced.

The voyage, greatly affected the Indian emigrant morally and physically, especially if it was his first sea voyage. “By crossing the ‘kala pani’ he had not only broken caste, but had relegated himself to the status of a Pariah (outcast). Depression set in as he witnessed the gradual destruction or modification of traditional customs. Physically it was difficult to adjust to the unfamiliar life on board so that he preferred to remain below deck. There was, nevertheless, one redeeming feature of the voyage. There developed a strong bond of friendship or ‘jehazi’ among emigrants which was cemented on the sugar plantations.”

Stand Corrected: Mental Cleansing #3― “On arrival in British Guiana: the basic feature of plantation society remained similar to that of slavery!”

“On arrival in British Guiana the indentured worker quickly came under the regularity and discipline of the plantation system. The plantation was an economic unit producing agricultural commodities for export. It employed a relatively large body of unskilled labour and had a rigidly stratified social structure based on occupational status and divided along race and colour lines. Decision- making was centralized, orders emanating from the master were issued to the slaves through the driver (headman).”

“With emancipation the social structure was somewhat adjusted but the basic feature of plantation society remained similar to that of slavery … well into the twentieth century. The white planter class continued to monopolize the means of production and consequently to maintain their dominant position. It was into this system that Indian immigrants, like Chinese, Portuguese and others, were introduced.”

Indentured immigrants on arrival were allotted to the various sugar estates by the Governor, often with- out enough time to acclimatize. They comprised principally Indians and, to a small extent, Portuguese and Chinese.


Laws, hours of work and fixed standard of performance

From the 1860s to the abolition of indenture in 1917 Indians comprised the hulk of the immigrant work force. “They were indentured for five years but were required to serve for ten before being entitled to a free return passage to India. Indenture as it evolved and developed in British Guiana was basically a system of social and industrial control. The colony’s labour and vagrancy laws were designed towards these ends. The labour law required the indentured worker to complete five tasks (scale of work set by an estate subordinate) each week for which he was paid five shillings, a level of pay which remained static for nearly a century. To complete a stipulated task the labourer was expected to work for seven hours a day in the field or ten in the factory. But the task was judged by what stalwart, Negro labourers could perform in the given time. This high output level of the task placed the indentured workers at a grave disadvantage, for failure to complete it meant breach of contract. An official report in 1871 disclosed that over one-half of the indentured work force could not complete five tasks a week. This meant that the employer could obtain a conviction against an indentured labourer ‘every or any week in the year’. Whether the labourer would be sent to prison depended largely on his behaviour or on his relationship with the driver, but certainly his wages would be stopped.”

Unfair Laws and other abuses

For such offences fines were inordinately high. “Frequently employers would institute formal charges against indentured workers and then withdraw them on a promise of good behaviour and on payment of the cost of the summons. Further, the employer could prosecute an immigrant for refusing to commence work or leaving unfinished work, absenting from work without leave, for disorderly behaviour, threatening, abusive or insulting words or gestures and for desertion. The aim was to foster a feeling of helplessness and dependence peculiar to slavery.”

The requirements of the idleness law were also forced on the Indians, for they aimed at restricting labour: and randomly the workers’ personal liberty. Thus if found two miles away from his plantation without a ‘pass’ signed by his employer (and this was illegal no law supported it) a police officer or constable could arrest an indentured labourer. The real reasons for the illegal “pass” were: (a) “to serve as a effective control device,” (b) “to ensure docility in the immigrant camp as ‘passes’ were only issued to those who ‘behaved well,’” and (c) to force indentured workers on their estates to be ‘at work, or in hospital or in gaol’ during working hours, or face prosecution, including pregnant and nursing mothers and convalescents discharged from hospital who may be physically unable to resume work, and (d) “to prevent immigrants from knowing the variation of wages on other estates and to deny them legitimate access to the Immigration Agent-General, the officer appointed to uphold their interests.”

The employers had powers to prosecute but the immigrants were defenseless, especially in the magistrate courts, since they were ignorant of the law, and of the English language. He was seen as a criminal in civil matters, prohibited from giving evidence in his own defense, and efforts to involve his co-workers as his witnesses were discouraged by the different instruments of prosecution arranged by the manager.

For instance, in the 1860s, Joseph Beaumont, the colony’s Chief Justice cited a case of a worker vs his employer where the worker’s witness, another immigrant, was summoned, but before he could gave his testimony he was arrested for vacating the estate “without a ‘pass.’”

“Under these disabilities the immigrant was induced to overact his case in court and supplement his ignorance with falsehood.”


Partial dispensing of justice

The duty of upholding the law and dispensing justice impartially was delegated to the Stipendiary Magistrate. But immigrants “lost confidence in the administration of justice in magistrates’ courts” because the magistrate, even the one with a conscience in that colonial society inclined to spend his free time with those on the side of management, “whom he occasionally had to report for abuses of the law.” And when no inns or hotels existed he frequently accepted the offer to overnight at manager’s home prior to his court proceedings the next day.

Immigrants other disabilities were: Even though immigrants were compelled by law to complete their agreement with “heavy penalty,” yet they were not protected by law to get back monies withheld by employers: and the employers were not compelled to give reasons for stopping their money. “Wages were often stopped for unsatisfactory or incomplete work, absence from work, insubordination and for damaged or lost tools.”

Stand Corrected: Mental Cleansing #4, “From the early 1860s indenture seemed to replicate the actual conditions of slavery!  ― Comments by William Russell, the Colonial Secretary; “The Times “and Beaumont, on the Indentured System

 “From the early 1860s indenture seemed to replicate the actual conditions of slavery. When in 1840 William Russell, the Colonial Secretary, coined the phrase ‘a new system of slavery’ he was perhaps predicting the outcome of the system. Commenting on the Devonshire Castle riots, The Times emphasised: ‘… if it be not slavery, [it] is certainly very tar (far) from freedom’. Beaumont described the system at its peak ‘… a monstrous, rotten system, rooted upon slavery, grown in its stale soil, emulating its worst abuses….’

Other Important Views linked to Slavery and Indenture ―by Professional Historians as Hugh Tinker, Anthony Trallope, Charles Beaumont, and our own Guyanese sons of the soil, the late Dr. Walter Rodney, and Dr. Basdeo Mangru

 “In the main, the system of Indentureship could be characterized as one of “struggle, sacrifice and resistance” where the Indian immigrants are concerned. The system itself was closely linked to slavery. British historian, Hugh Tinker, who did extensive work on East Indian Labour Overseas, describes it as a “New System of Slavery”.

Anthony Trallope, who visited the Caribbean in the 1850s, viewed it as “A depotism
tempered with sugar”. Chief Justice in the second half of the Nineteenth Century, Charles Beaumont, aptly describes it as “a rotten, monstrous system rooted in slavery.”

The late distinguished Guyanese historian, Dr. Walter Rodney highlighted the harshness of the Indentureship system and its “neo-slave nature”.

Another Guyanese historian, Dr. Basdeo Mangru argues that slavery and indenture showed remarkable similarities in terms of control, exploitation and degradation. In any event it is reasonable to conclude that the very nature of the Indentureship system that prevailed, lent itself to struggle, sacrifice and resistance on the part of the indentured labourers.

Some Similarities of ‘Slavery’ and ‘Indenture in Practice’

“Indeed, slavery and indenture showed remarkable similarities. Both the slave and the indentured worker were subjected to laws over which they had no control and no part in their formulation. The power of control was exercised by minority white elite, principally comprised of planters and merchants, who dominated the political institutions in the colony. Both systems were designed to restrict the mobility of labour, to anchor the work force on the estate so that labour would be readily available. It was on the employer’s property that he lived, cultivated his provision grounds (small plots of land for the growing of root crops), raised feathered stock or sought medical attention when sick. The right to collective bargaining or even to strike was non- existent under slavery and indenture.”

The two basic differences that were overshadowed by their similarities

“There were, nevertheless, two basic differences but these were over- shadowed by their similarities. The slave was private property and slavery implied permanence. The indentured worker, in contrast, was an instrument of production, one whose freedom” was temporarily frozen by his contractua1 obligations. But these differences were nullified by the provisions in the law which made rein- denture possible. Cases were found of immigrants re-indenturing so often that they remained under contract for more than thirty years. Indenture implied paid labour, slavery non-paid labour. But the price of labour was not subject to negotiation; it was fixed arbitrarily by the planter or by an estate subordinate. In such circumstances the sanctity of the contract was liable to be breached.”

“To the Victorians slavery was immoral as it was incompatible with personal liberty. Indenture was expedient because it prevented freedom from degenerating into vagrancy and idleness. Theoretically, indenture was a compromise designed to provide the planter with the labour he desired and the Indian immigrant with certain rights. In practice, such rights hardly ever existed. Behind the facade of care and protection an indentured worker was exploited and degraded between the levers of arbitrary wage stoppages and summary imprisonment.”

My thoughts and the comments of others

If “slavery” and “Indenture” in practice, showed remarkable similarities, then an indentured labourer’s working and living conditions under the Indentured System would have been “destructive of caste and culture, and often as harsh as those of the slaves they replaced.” He or she would have faced the blunt of the Indentureship system at its zenith, even “from the early 1860s when indenture seemed to replicate the actual conditions of slavery,” just as William Russell, the Colonial Secretary, predicted two decades before i.e., in 1840 when he coined the phrase ‘a new system of slavery.’ The East Indian indentured labourer would have felt it, would have known it, and if still alive today, he/she would have told their children exactly what “Indenture” was like, and would have endorsed the bold and candidly description of it, by Chief Justice Beaumont of British Guiana, who in 1871 put in his book, The New Slavery, ‘was a monstrous, rotten system, rooted upon slavery, grown in its stale soil, emulating its worst abuses….’

That ‘monstrous’ Indenture Thing, initially influenced by deception, in that, it was actually slavery in a new form, is still alive not in the sugar cane plantations but in the very nature of some today, who transmit this deceptive culture to the younger generations. According to my understanding ‘Indenture’ is twofold in nature: the “theory” was a deception, and the “practice” was the real Macaw. So the outcome of the sugar coated theory was in practice, for example, lashes plenty on the indentured workers’ backs with a cat o’ nine tails, followed by salt brine rubbed in on their backs etceteras. “Suh wah dem ah talk bout a de deceptive ‘Theoritical Indenture.’ Let us be truthful and accept the fact that Slavery is slavery under whatever name/s used. And ‘Slavery’ and its twin brother,’Slavery- Indenture,’ were similar in nature, and that their similarities overshadowed their only two differences: (1) ‘the slave was private property and slavery implied permanence,’ and (2) ‘the indentured worker, in contrast, was an instrument of production, one whose freedom was temporarily frozen by his contractual obligations.’

Deceptive Indenture initially gave Indentured labourers and even their generations today the feeling that it was not actual Slavery. It is one root cause of the racial divides mainly between the two major groups in Guyana today, because some still under Indenture’s aged influence are blinded to the truth, and in their minds classify “Indenture” above “Slavery.” Another root cause is that Deceptive “Indenture” as I describe it, is multi-faceted, wears a political jacket here and is used as a political tool for political and other reasons….

It is in my nature to be part of a genuinely liberated Guyanese Society of all ethnic groups united as one people, one nation, and one destiny. But there can be no such Society if there is no likeness for it. In truth and in fact without like-mindedness society cannot be birthed. It is possible; however, that likeness of some sort may be evident outside of a society, for instance, one such as a National Society―the Guyanese Society in which no man is bigger than the law.  

Sadly, a likeness for corruption seems to have been an emerging culture here, but it is rooted out in the spiritual realm already, in Jesus’ name. The strategy of the modern day Al Capones is to put up challenges, impress, and talk their way out of their dilemma. In spite of this, corruption must be rooted out now in physical realm here in Guyana, elsewhere too, and will be provided that, in this short time that is left, the system goes beyond the Corruption Parade in the media, and ‘tek back by right all dat dem tek from de State, eh, eh;’ followed by a condign punishment via the Court of law ‘fo justice and fair play,’ to help change the mind-set of those caught, including the big wings whoever they might be, and that of others contemplating to follow in the way of corruption.

However the good news is: It is time to pray  more intensly. It is time for action. It is time to change the course that corruption has taken in the Republic of Guyana.  It is time to punish and change the mind-set of those caught. It is time to close the door to corruption of the mind, open the door to purity, integrity and rise to the state of mind, create and establish a Guyanese Society of One people, One nation, One destiny, and enjoy “a better life,” with the help of God, in Jesus’ name. Shalom

May Yahweh richly bless you and your household, in Jesus’ name. Amen.

Serving in newness of spirit,

Redeeming Luv.

History and Culture

UCOC7thDMinistries Communiqué!

 Symbol of InJewism -The Religion of the InJew Nation of Christ; with roots in Guyana, South America.

Symbol of InJewism -The Religion of the InJew Nation in Christ; with roots in Guyana, South America.[Rom. 2: 29; 1 Peter 2:9-10]

Monday, February 09, “Heat Up” 2015

Welcome to Culture and History !

.“Biological traits could not be the basis for group foundation unless they were conceived as shared characteristics. It was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another.” [Max Weber 1906]        

Caste, is the Root Cause of Division!! But the Majority of the Electorate Collective Opinion on, and Non Racial Voting Practice (NRVP), against Racial Voting (RV), will create and distinguish the Group from all other; and will win the Elections on May 11; and beyond.                                          —Pastor:Elder Wilfred A. Wilson                                            

Back Ground History

In traditional Indian Society, the use of the term “Untouchables”, with alternates titles: Dalit, External Cast, Harijan, and Panchama, refers to any member of a wide variety of low caste Hindu groups, including any person outside the Caste System. However, due to the constitution adopted by both India in 1949, and Pakistan in 1953, respectively, the use of the term “Untouchables” and the collective restrictions associated with it, were declared illegal. Thus, in lieu of, the term “Untouchables, “an euphemism, is used, namely, Dalit, and this also carries negative undertones; but in India the “Scheduled Class” in most commonly used. The term “Untouchables” is also a major category under which varieties of hereditary Castes fall, and adhere to the social rule of Endogamy—ensuring marriage within the Caste Community.

The Scheduled Castes, with a population of one hundred and seventy million (170, 000,000), was so classified on basis of the work they did, their way of life and their ritualistic activities— which the higher castes considered polluted, for example, such work like handling the dead, and things dead, urine, feces; eating pork, chicken, doing watchmen job, etc.: while the indigenous Indians, (the Orthodox Castes) with a population of 84,000,000 are now referred to as Scheduled Tribes, were so classified because of what they ate only.

Princess Diana, reaching out to the Untouchables in India

Princess Diana, reaching out to the Untouchables in India

The lower castes were restricted to hamlets outside the town or

village boundary; also from entering temples, schools; and from wells which the higher castes drew their water. They (Low Class) were to some high castes, a serious pollution if touched, while to others, the untouchables’ mere sight was to them, a similar pollution. As a result many moved about at nights: and many sought their freedom “through conversion to Christianity, Islam, or Buddhism.” Today, the Indians’ constitution has established both the schedule castes, and the schedule tribes, i.e., the indigenous Indians, who fall outside the Indian social hierarchy: by providing them with special educational and vocational privileges, and proper representation in parliament; under the untouchable Offence Act 1955. In spite of this, due to existing traditional divisions between the pure and the polluted caste groups, the latter’s emancipation is a slowed down.

 About the group who came

This group who came to Guiana’s shores as indentured laborers, and in spite of their caste system, they were forced to live closely together in the very places the freed slaves once occupied, lived under the same harsh conditions as slaves, and were even flogged with the cat-o-nine- tails without mercy by the planters. In truth and in fact, they endured some tough aspects of slavery at the hands of the planters from 1838 to1845: before the indentured laborers’ program was temporarily stopped. Interestingly, a commission of inquiry was even sent from England to Guiana about that time to investigate into the harsh treatment of Indentured laborers by the Planters. That done, and conditions began to change progressively during the arrival of the Portuguese in 1845, India lifted the restriction and the Indian Indentured laborers’ program started again.

Musing the nature and causes of the divide                                                                 

The British Ship that brought the Indian indentured laborers to British Guiana in 1838

The British Ship that brought the Indian indentured laborers to British Guiana in 1838

Today, existing in our multi racial society Guyana could be a traditional caste culture, of a group that is an integral part of our Guyanese society. A group who, perhaps, undoubtedly might have been influenced by their history, and the very caste system they once ran away from. And, also, may have in time considered itself an elite class above all others, and therefore to vote race is best in their group’s interest in order to stay up there; hence the current divide between the two major races— it would appear.  For example: when it comes to an event, say, national election, racial voting is encouraged (but not all Guyanese Indians vote race and likewise not all Guyanese Africans). And because of the racial attitude of some, social and economical progress is slowed down especially.

 How longer will this stale born “pickney” (racial voting) be allowed to keep the people divided; especially during national elections? How long will it stand in the way of progress, discourage foreign investors, and slow down our economy? It is therefore important that all the multi-racial groups for positive change come together, and move this obstinate, spoiled child  (racial voting) out of the way, for the common good.

If the Electorate become fully aware of the importance of Non Racial Voting (NRV) for issues that will benefit us, and for democracy, at the upcoming elections on May 11, and how it (the electorate) can transform Guyana initially just within 24 hours; then it must first establish a foundation with a shared distinctiveness or uniqueness.

For example, like the opinion that Non Racial Voting for matters that would be beneficial to everyone, is better than Racial Voting that has proven to be neither any real benefit to the people, nor to the country. If everyone share this OPINION and pass it down as a norm to all new members of the group, who will in turn pass it down …, then the Collective View on that OPINION,  plus the common custom of voting based on that OPINION, would create and distinguish this particular group of the Electorate—  way of voting from all others.

According to Max Weber (1906-11), “It was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another.”

.Comments & Conclusion

Non racial voting based on issues is a solution that could defeat racial voting, provided that, this culture is taught and established and shared widely in our ten regions within a limited time of three months. It is possible that, it (the program) will affect positive change/s, apart from other strategies in progress. Knowledge is power you see. The increase of voters against racial voting at the upcoming elections on May 11; when compared to the results of the previous election in 2011, will have determined the percentage of the electorate in the ten regions that would have learnt and practice the non racial voting culture. And since the APNU is all about Non Racial Voting (NRV), Democracy, and solving issues affecting Guyana and the Guyanese people; who would not want to support the APNU? It is most likely that people, who really want real change, and have become the change, would support the APNU, which is of itself the change; and would bring the desired change to Guyana, and Guyanese.

Below is a message in song from our Guyanese children, and a section that represents Guyana’ future, and Leaders,too.. Remember all of Guyana’s children in your planning and decision making, Leaders, all.

Please click the white arrow, and listen to a beautiful song entitled, “If we hold on together our dreams will never die”: by The Success Elementary School (Guyana) choir. Enjooooooy! Amen!

 —By Wilfred A. Wilson



History and Culture

UCOC7thDMinistries Communiqué!

 Symbol of InJewism -The Religion of the InJew Nation of Christ; with roots in Guyana, South America.

Symbol of InJewism -The Religion of the InJew Nation of Christ; with roots in Guyana, South America.


TOPIC: An understanding of the Indentured East Indians Journey on the plantations in British Guiana.

A brief Summary of Indentured East Indian Labourers to British Guiana: The abolition of slavery in 1838, and the absence of forced labour, resulted into a steep decline of 60% in the agriculture production in British Guiana, and numerous plantations were forced to shut down. Subsequently, a new form of slavery was commenced when the owners of the Plantations sought immigrants from Europe and the British West indies, for example England, Germany, Ireland, and W.I: and the Indentured System initiated. But these immigrants did not last long on the plantations due to tropical heat and laborious work conditions. So the British in Guiana, a super power then, had a British presence in Uttar Pradesh, a North Indian province since 1765, and through their Calcutta recruiting agency there, they employed thousands of poor, unemployed, and exploited Indians, (by the ruling class), between the ages of 10-30 years; including smaller batches who hailed from Bihr, Karachi, Lahore, Punjab, and Afghanistan, just to mention a few. And all these  according to the Indian Caste System, with their minds bent on escaping the poor, social, economic conditions, and political oppression, having been given a passage to Guiana and a place to stay, by their own choice, went on board the British ship, namely, the Whitby, and another ship, namely, the Hesperus, at the Calcutta’s Port, where they set sail on January 13, and 29, 1838, respectively, and were bound for British Guiana. On May 05, 1838, the former ship, with the first group of Indians numbered 249, arrived in Berbice with 244, five of which were women, and 5 died at sea: while the latter, the Hesperus, which set sail from Port Calcutta, on January 29, 1838, arrived in Berbice, British Guiana, with 165 more East Indians, six of that amount were women, and 13 died at sea.  East Indians, or the Jahan people (People of the Ship) worked very hard under given conditions, endure the heat, but it was “extremely hot” for those (the largest group), who came from and Punjab, so much so that their skin became red. Below shows the Origin and Dreakdown of Indian Immigrants to British Guiana (1838) East Indian Indentureship .

Origin and Dreakdown of Indian Immigrants to British Guiana (1838)

“Between 1838 and 1917 over 500 ship voyages with 238,909 Indentured Indian immigrants came to Guyana; while 75,898 of them or their children returned to India. The vast majority of the Indian Immigrants that came were from the Hindustani (or Hindi) speaking areas of North India. The most popular Hindustani dialect spoken among these immigrants was Bhojpuri (spoken in east Uttar Pradesh and west Bihar), followed by Awadhi (spoken in central Uttar Pradesh). 62% of the Indian Immigrants to Guyana came from districts that are now part of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 21% from districts that are now part of Bihar state, 6% were from prepartioned Bengal, 3% from what are today Orissa and Jharkhand states, 3% from what is today Tamil Nadu state, 3% from Central India, 1% from prepartioned Punjab and the remaining 1% from the rest of India. (96.8% of all the Indian Immigrants to Guyana left from the port of Calcutta in North India, and 3.2% from the port of Madras in South India)

The religious breakdown of the Indian immigrants to Guyana were 85% Hindus and 15% Muslims.

“While no solidified caste groups survived the early colonial period, Indenture documents of the Indian immigrants to Guyana found that 11% were Hindus who were classified as Brahmin, Bhumihar, Chatri, Rajput and Thakur castes. 1% were Hindus of the merchant or writer castes, 30% were Hindus of the medium agricultural castes, 9% were Hindus of the artisan castes, 2% were Hindus of the petty trading castes, 2% were Hindus of fishermen and boatmen castes, 25% were Hindus who were from menial or dalit castes, 3% were Hindus who were Madrasis, 2% were Hill Coolies or Tribals, and the remaining 15% were Muslims regardless of their caste origins.

The only acknowledgment the colonial government and the plantation managers gave to caste differences was their distrust of the Brahims as potential leaders.East Indians workers were housed together and placed in work gangs without consideration of caste.”

How the East Indians and Indentured Servants, were treated on the Plantations


The Indians suffered tremendously because of the harsh living conditions on the plantations.

“Although slavery was abolished, plantation owners still had the mentality of slavery and mistreated the Indians. In 1838, when the Indians first arrive, and were forced to live under the harsh conditions, a number of Indians had escape across the rivers and into the woods. As they escaped, they were caught and flogged and some were found dead. There were no doctors to help them so they found their own medicine. They rubbed salted pickle on their backs to fight infectious diseases and to heal the wounds from the whips.”

“…Working conditions under this “new form of slavery” turned out to be not much better than under slavery. Soon after their arrival in British Guiana stories of severe ill treatment of the servants, at the hands of the planters” overseers, including flogging with the cat-o-nine tail were reported to Governor Henry Light. According to one eyewitness, Elizabeth Caesar, a former house-slave gave evidence that “The Coolies were locked up in the sick house, and next morning they were flogged with a cat-o’-nine-tails; the manager was in the house, and they flogged the people under his house; they were tied to the post of the gallery of the manager’s house; I cannot tell how many licks; he gave them enough. I saw blood. When they were flogged at manager’s house, they rubbed salt pickle on their backs.

On the 31st January 1839 Special Justice Coleman was sent by the British Crown to inspect conditions on the five plantations. He found evidence of extremely harsh treatment with many of the immigrants suffering from wounds inflicted by the overseers and drivers (some of whom were former slaves). Justice Coleman also mentioned the incident of the first two servants (Jumun and Pultun, both of them Muslims) indentured to Gladstone Plantation at Vreed-en-Hoop who were the first to rebel against the slave-like conditions under which they were forced to labor. A second convoy – Sir M. Mc Turk – was appointed by the British Court of Policy to report on the situation as well. When he visited the hospital on the Gladstone plantation he observed that – “the coolies in it were not suffering merely from sores; they had mortified ulcers, their flesh rotting on their bones, their toes dropping off and some of them were in a dangerous state from fever, and all were in the utmost despondency.”

When news of their slave-like treatment reached Hindustan, the British Government suspended East Indian immigration in 1841.” However it was resumed again in 1645 when conditions got better on the plantations in the Americas. 

170th anniversary of Indian arrival in Guyana by “BK”

When news of their slave-like treatment reached Hindustan, the British Government suspended East Indian immigration in 1841.” However it was resumed again in 1645 when conditions got better on the plantations in the Americas.

Comment and Conclusion

In as much as Indentureship System was a harsh one for the East Indians labourers on the Plantations, it cannot be compared to that of Slavery.  Unlike the Indentured East Indian laborers whose worst treatment would have lasted less than seven years, my ancestors endured the worst kind Slavery each day for about 400 years. Further, African slaves were stripped of everything, for example,  their names, langusge, culture: their wives and children were taken from them, and the African pride was hurt badly, just to mention a few. An interesting observation is that the Planters paid no interest in the Indian caste structure, and that went to the wind after a period of time. But the British kept their eyes on the Brahmins because of their leadership abilities. As a result, the the caste groups which included  the 25-30% untouchables” worked together, and vise versa, and all were flogged and treated badly alike. But one good thing that came out of that putting together of all the caste groups was, that they found out a way to tolerate the “untouchables,” and to communicate in a dialect that was common to all,e.g.Urdu: ‘for all did not speak the same languages.

Another remarkable act was that of the former house slave, Elizabeth Caesar, an eye witness to the severe flogging of Indians, who boldly told Governor Henry Light, about the harsh treatment the East Indians received at the hands of the planters. So there was always that goodwill  and solidarity between Africans and East Indians, ever since India was a part of Africa, and more so under African rule. Interestingly,  I grew up seeing this spirit of cooperation and  care among the two major races im my country, Guyana, until politics divided and polarized some. In spite of what may have happened in the past, the two leaders have died, may their souls rest in peace. Life must go on. Now, let us put death to racism within us, and move on with our lives, and let us come together as a people and work hard for the betterment and common good of our children, nation, and country, in Jesus’ name. Let us pray that Almighty God makes all Guyanese, individuals and groups,  a Channel of His peace.  This message in song is beautifully rendered by Success Elementary School  Choir (Guyana). Enjoy. Shalom.

   -by Pastor: Elder Wilfred A. Wilson

 Low caste boy killed by high caste man